the colonial era, Koranic schools provided traditional Islamic
education. Upon completion of the Koran, students were introduced
to theology, Arabic grammar, literature, and sharia (Islamic
law). After this, they might study under separate scholars,
each having strength in a particular discipline.
this reason, students often had to travel long distances.
The most important centers of learning were Seylac, Harar,
Mogadishu, Marka, Brava, and Baardheere. The colonial era
introduced Western-style education. The two colonial powersBritish
in the north and Italian in the southpursued different educational
The Italian-run schools
provided technical training in agriculture, commerce, maritime
studies, and aviation, while the British schools trained young
men for administrative and technical positions. Educational
opportunities expanded after the Somali script was introduced
in the 1970s as a medium of instruction at the primary, intermediate,
and secondary levels. Basic education became compulsory. Secondary
education, however, remained beyond the grasp of most Somalis.
In the late 1980s, the number of students in secondary school
was less than 10% of the total in primary schools. In recent
years, an Islamic resurgence has led to a revival of Islamic
education in both urban and rural areas.
schools offered training in agriculture, communication, crafts,
and other fields. In addition to formal technical education,
apprenticeships in trades such as blacksmithing, carpentry,
farming, fishing, and pastoralism passed skills from parents
to children. Somalia's principal institution of higher learning,
the Somali National University, was founded in 1970, with
nine faculties. It later expanded to 13. Before the outbreak
of civil war, the university had 4,000 students. Two years
of civil war destroyed most of Somalia's educational institutions,
and many of the educated elite left the country. There are
now attempts to restart education in clan enclaves.
See Also:Some related link about
the origine and the phonetic of the somali language.